Civil Rights Demonstrators holding picket signs protesting segregation.

Can text mining and machine learning

identify racist language in legal documents?

Civil Rights Demonstrators in Front of the Long Meadow Dairy Store, February 1960, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

A segregated classroom with young, African American students learning from their teacher.


Find educational resources for the On The Books project including curriculum, reading guides and more.

Dr. Rev. Pauli Murray doing research.


Learn about research methods and findings for the On The Books project. Researchers interested in text analysis can access our Python tutorials through Jupyter Notebooks.

Snippet of words from an 1879 law specifying separation between races. Words include separate and white.


Access text from North Carolina law books and read about the historical context in which these laws were implemented.

On the Books: Jim Crow and Algorithms of Resistance is a text mining project with the goal of discovering Jim Crow and racially-based legislation signed into law in North Carolina between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Movement (1866-1967).

This website lists and contextualizes North Carolina segregation laws for educators and researchers interested in Southern and African American History during the Jim Crow era.

This work has been funded by the Mellon Foundation as part of the first cohort for Collections as Data: Part to Whole, the ARL Venture Fund, and an IDEA Action Grant as part of the Reckoning Initiative at the University Libraries.

The On the Books website is a product of a digital scholarship project and will not be maintained in perpetuity. The site will be reviewed December 31, 2024. Depending on use, funding, and maintenance required, the site may be decommissioned and archived at that time. The text corpora created for this project will be preserved in the Carolina Digital Repository.
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