Primary/Secondary Sources

This collection of resources is provided for students, teachers, and scholars interested in learning more about the Jim Crow era. They provide important context for understanding and teaching the laws identified by On the Books. The list is curated by librarians and subject specialists with a focus on vetted primary and secondary sources related to Jim Crow, and most are specific to North Carolina. Resources can be filtered by level (primary or secondary) and type (documents and records, fiction, music, photographs, and scholarly works).

Delano, Jack, photographer. “A cafe near the tobacco market, Durham, North Carolina.” Photograph. 1940 May. From Library of Congress, America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black–and-White Photographs from FSA-OWI, 1935-1945.

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Crow, Jeffrey J., Paul D. Escott, and Flora J. Hatley Wadelington. A History of African Americans in North Carolina. Raleigh: N. C. Dept. of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, 2011.

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A Voice From the South: Cooper, Anna J. (Anna Julia)

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"Agency Circle and School, Cherokee Reservation, Cherokee, N.C." in Durwood Barbour Collection of North Carolina Postcards (P077), North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, Wilson Library, UNC-Chapel Hill

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An era of progress and promise, 1863-1910 : the religious, moral, and educational development of the American Negro since his emancipation by Hartshorn, W. N. (William Newton), 1843-1920

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Delano, Jack, photographer. “At the bus station in Durham, North Carolina.” Photograph. 1940 May. From Library of Congress, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives.

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State Archives of North Carolina. From the African American Heritage and Civil Rights Collection, PC.2185, B1, F1. Postcard with the caption: "The Baptist Supply Store is the only book store operated by a Negro State Convention in America. It is located in the new Baptist headquarters ' building. 601 S. Wilmington St. in Raleigh, N.C."Collection is open and we seek relevant additions, including Green Books.

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Feldman, Glenn. Before Brown: Civil Rights and White Backlash in the Modern South. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004.

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Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), and David Levering Lewis. Black Reconstruction in America. New York: Atheneum, 1935.

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Cafe in warehouse district during tobacco auction season. Durham, North Carolina. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

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DigitalNC. Image shows a group of mostly African American young people in front of the Center Theatre. A "Colored Balcony Entrance" sign can be seen. Numerous bicycles are parked on the sidewalk along the curb. Some of the young people are carrying placards.

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State Archives of North Carolina. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Palmer Institute, Sedalia, NC. The Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial Institute, better known as Palmer Memorial Institute, was a school for upper class African Americans. It was founded in 1902 by Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown at Sedalia, North Carolina near Greensboro. Palmer Memorial Institute was named after Alice Freeman Palmer, former president of Wellesley College and benefactor of Dr. Brown. From the General Negatives, State Archives of NC.

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Civil Rights Demonstration, 4 August 1962, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Civil Rights Demonstration, 7 March 1960, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Civil Rights Demonstrations, 7 January 1961, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Civil Rights Demonstrations, 7 January 1961, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Civil Rights Demonstrators in Front of the Long Meadow Dairy Store, February 1960, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Civil Rights Street Demonstration., 25 May 1963, in the Roland Giduz Photographic Collection #P0033, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Created by Molly Carmody and Victoria Lasarte for the Digital Durham class at Duke University.

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Civil Writes march and sit-in, fasters (sic, Civil Rights), February, 1 April 1964, in the Jock Lauterer Photographic Collection #P0069, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Civil Writes march and sit-in, fasters (sic, Civil Rights), February, 1 April 1964, in the Jock Lauterer Photographic Collection #P0069, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Chafe, William H. Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.

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State Archives of North Carolina. Color film strip depicting various photos of scenes and statistics from c.1949-1950’s Duplin County Schools, PhC.188. From Photograph Collections, State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC.

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Colored Charlotte

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"Colored Troops Man the 155 mm. Coast Defense Guns- Camp Davis, N.C.", Durwood Barbour Collection of North Carolina Postcards (P077), North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, Wilson Library, UNC-Chapel Hill

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Draper, Sharon M. (Sharon Mills). Copper Sun. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2006.

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Wright, Barbara. Crow. New York: Random House, 2012.

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Gates Jr., Henry Louis and Tonya Bolden. Dark Sky Rising: Reconstruction and the Dawn of Jim Crow. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc., 2019.

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Defense of the Negro Race----Charges Answered. Speech of Hon. George H. White, of North Carolina, in the House of Representatives, January 29, 1901

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Cecelski, David S., and Timothy B. Tyson. Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

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Don Sturkey Photographic Materials #P0070, North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.

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Dr. Martin Luther King (and others) Sit-in at Woolworths in downtown Durham," 16 February 1960, in the Durham Herald Co. Newspaper Photograph Collection #P0105, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Dr. Martin Luther King (and others) Sit-in at Woolworths in downtown Durham, 16 February 1960, in the Durham Herald Co. Newspaper Photograph Collection #P0105, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Dr. Martin Luther King (and others) Sit-in at Woolworths in downtown Durham, 16 February 1960, in the Durham Herald Co. Newspaper Photograph Collection #P0105, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Dr. Martin Luther King (and others) Sit-in at Woolworths in downtown Durham, 16 February 1960, in the Durham Herald Co. Newspaper Photograph Collection #P0105, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Dr. Martin Luther King, Gordon Carey Rev. Douglas Moore - race meeting, 16 February 1960, in the Durham Herald Co. Newspaper Photograph Collection #P0105, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Drinking fountain on the county courthouse lawn, Halifax, North Carolina. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

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Durham Colored Library, Durham, N.C., in Durwood Barbour Collection of North Carolina Postcards (P077), North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, Wilson Library, UNC-Chapel Hill

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Durham Herald Co. Newspaper Photograph Collection #P0105, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York: Knopf, 1988.

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Gen. J.S. Carr's letter to ex-Confederates : the old soldiers will not be disfranchised : their rights are secure : extravagance and corruption follow Negro rule by Carr, Julian Shakespeare

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Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

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State Archives of North Carolina. Robeson County. Indian school building at magnolia, NC. December 1939. JWA-27 No. 4482. From the Luther J. Jordan Photograph Collection.

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Indians of North Carolina : letter from the secretary of the Interior, transmitting, in response to a Senate resolution of June 30, 1914, a report on the condition and tribal rights of the Indians of Robeson and adjoining counties of North Carolina by McPherson, O. M. (Orlando M.); United States. Dept. of the Interior, published 1915

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Eric Dolphy “Jim Crow” from the album Other Aspects, 1962

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State Archives of North Carolina. June Kay Campbell (1925-2004), mother of Ralph Campbell Jr., and also William C. (Bill), Edwin, and Mildred Campbell (now Christmas). A General Assembly Resolution 2005-24 and House Joint Resolution 1118 includes the following tribute: "... on September 7, 1960, June Kay Campbell, with courage, confidence, and dignity, escorted her son, Bill, on his first day to school at the formerly all-white Murphey Elementary School, paving the way for the integration of the Raleigh Public School System; and Whereas, despite malicious taunts and threats of violence, June Kay Campbell walked Bill to school every day for three years;..."

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Valk, Anne M., and Leslie Brown. Living with Jim Crow: African American Women and Memories of the Segregated South. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

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Lowery, Malinda Maynor. Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

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Redding, Kent. Making Race, Making Power: North Carolina’s Road to Disfranchisement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

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Escott, Paul D. Many Excellent People: Power and Privilege in North Carolina, 1850-1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

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Map of Robeson County, NC 1922 – this shows clearly segregated white, Black, and Lumbee areas of the county

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Minutes of the Freedmen's Convention, Held in the City of Raleigh, on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th of October, 1866.

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Hurston, Zora Neale. Mules and Men. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1935.

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"North Carolina Insane Asylum for the Colored, Goldsboro, N.C." in Durwood Barbour Collection of North Carolina Postcards (P077), North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, Wilson Library, UNC-Chapel Hill

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North Carolina's policy in regard to the Negro is segregation and separation with justice, under the constitution by E. L. D

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North Carolina's social welfare program for negroes by North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare

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Woodward, C. Vann (Comer Vann), Charles B. Dew, and Robert Josephy. Origins of the New South, 1877--1913. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 2009.

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State Archives of North Carolina. Professor Jacob's School, African-American, students and teacher in front of school, early 1900's, Lake Waccamaw, NC; Columbus County. From the General Negative Collection.

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Franklin, John Hope. Race and History: Selected Essays 1938-1988. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

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Beckel, Deborah. Radical Reform: Interracial Politics in Post-Emancipation North Carolina. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011.

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Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution: 1863-1877. New York: HarperPerennial, 2014.

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Red Cross Canteen (Colored) Hamlet, N.C. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

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Redlining maps of various North Carolina cities (originals at the Library of Congress)

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Remarks of Hon. John D. Bellamy, of North Carolina, in the House of Representatives, Thursday, February 1, 1900 by Bellamy, John Dillard, 1853-1942, published 1900 (re: federal aid to Lumbee)

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American Public Media’s Remembering Jim Crow

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And Chafe, William H., Raymond Gavins, Robert Rodgers Korstad, and Behind the Veil Project. Remembering Jim Crow : African Americans Tell about Life in the Segregated South. New York: New Press, in association with Lyndhurst Books of the Center for Documentary Studies of Duke University, 2001.

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Report of the Governor's Commission for the Study of Problems in the Education of Negroes in North Carolina, 1935

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Republican Mass Meeting. Pursuant to Call, the Colored Republicans of the Various Wards of the City of Charlotte Met at Zion School House, September 4th, 1884

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State Archives of North Carolina. Rev. Richmond H.W. Leak (1845-1920) was presiding elder of the Raleigh district of the AME church. He was active in ‘Fusion’ politics, 1894-1900, which was a collaboration of the Republican and Populist parties that gained large majorities in both the state senate and house in the elections of 1894. The Fusion coalition succeeded in electing a Republican governor, Daniel Russell, in the election of 1896. Leak was also editor of the Outlook, a pro-fusion newspaper established in 1895. Rev. R.H.W. Leak died in 1920, and is buried in Raleigh’s Mt. Hope Cemetery.

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"Scotia Seminary, Colored Female College, W. Depot St. Concord, N.C." in Durwood Barbour Collection of North Carolina Postcards (P077), North Carolina Collection

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Speech of Senator Z.B. Vance, of North Carolina, on the Negro question, delivered in the Senate of the United States on Thursday, January 30, 1890

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Street scene near bus station in Durham, North Carolina. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

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The Carolina Times of Durham, NC

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The Croatan Indians of Sampson County, North Carolina. Their Origin and Racial Status. A Plea for Separate Schools, by Butler, George Edwin, 1868-1941

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The Daily Record of Wilmington, NC

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The effects of emancipation upon the mental and physical health of the Negro of the South by Miller, J. F. (John Fulenwider), 1834-1905

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The First Freedom Ride

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The Great Negro Fair. Bulletin No. 2. Raleigh, North Carolina, October, 1904

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The Lumbee Indians Annotated Bibliography by Glenn Ellen Starr Stilling

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The Marrow of Tradition, Charles Chestnutt at DocSouth

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The Negro and his white allies 1900

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The Negro population of North Carolina : social and economic by Larkins, John R. (John Rodman); North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare

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The Negro state college seeks and deserves your support by Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina

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Kousser, J. Morgan. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880-1910. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.

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Woodward, C. Vann (Comer Vann). The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.

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The Upbuilding of Black Durham. The Success of the Negroes and Their Value to a Tolerant and Helpful Southern City by Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963

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Herbin-Triant, Elizabeth A. Threatening Property: Race, Class, and Campaigns to Legislate Jim Crow Neighborhoods. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

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Brown, Leslie. Upbuilding Black Durham: Gender, Class, and Black Community Development in the Jim Crow South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

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We challenged JIM CROW! (Journey of Reconciliation)

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